Indigenous people have historically struggled to assert their rights and continue to do so even today. The Northeast India is home to about 160 indigenous communities which are culturally or historically distinct from the rest of the population. These communities share a close bond with their land and nature and consider it crucial to their identity. Though the Sixth Schedule in certain areas of Northeast India recognizes the indigenous communities' rights over land and self-governance, these communities continue to feel discriminated and marginalised. There is a strong felt need among the people to develop or modernise without compromising on their identity. Dr. Phrang Roy and Ms. Jarjum Ete present the current situation while stressing on 'development with identity'.