SOURCES AND REFERENCES
WATERSHEDS (HydroBASINS)The product "HydroBASINS" incorporates data from the HydroSHEDS database which is © World Wildlife Fund, Inc. (2006-2013) and has been used herein under license. WWF has not evaluated the data as altered and incorporated within [insert Licensee Derivative Product name], and therefore gives no warranty regarding its accuracy, completeness, currency or suitability for any particular purpose. Portions of the HydroSHEDS database incorporate data which are the intellectual property rights of © USGS (2006-2008), NASA (2000-2005), ESRI (1992-1998), CIAT (2004-2006), UNEP-WCMC (1993), WWF (2004), Commonwealth of Australia (2007), and Her Royal Majesty and the British Crown and are used under license. The HydroSHEDS database and more information are available at http://www.hydrosheds.org.
Scientific credit for the HydroSHEDS database :
Lehner, B., Verdin, K., Jarvis, A. (2008): New global hydrography derived from spaceborne elevation data. Eos, Transactions, AGU, 89(10): 93-94.
Scientific credit for the HydroBASINS layers:
Lehner, B., Grill G. (2013): Global river hydrography and network routing: baseline data and new approaches to study the world’s large river systems. Hydrological Processes, 27(15): 2171–2186.
STREAMS (GloRIC data base - Version 1.0)
Source GloRIC data : https://www.hydrosheds.org/page/gloric
GloRIC is part of the WWF HYDROSHED project. Version 1.0 of GloRiC provides a hydrologic, physio-climatic, and geomorphic sub-classification, as well as a combined type for every river reach, resulting in a total of 127 river reach types. It also offers a k-means statistical clustering of the reaches into 30 groups. The dataset comprises 8.5 million river reaches with a total length of 35.9 million km.
In this website, we have classified rivers by Q average in m3/s.
WETLANDS AND PROTECTED AREAS
RAMSAR - Convention on Wetlands
Source RAMSAR sites :https://rsis.ramsar.orgThe Convention on Wetlands, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
Protected areas -Protected planet
Source "Protected Areas" :UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2021), Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) and World Database on Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (WD-OECM) [Online], March 2021, Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global spatial dataset on terrestrial and marine protected areas. Protected areas are internationally recognised as major tools in conserving species and ecosystems, and up to date information on protected areas is essential to fully enable conservation and development activities. Data are regularly updated and Rivers Network is keen to provide as much as possible the most updated published data.
Natura 2000 (EU countries)
Source "Natura 2000 (European Union)" :Natura 2000 is an ecological network composed of sites designated under the Birds Directive (Special Protection Areas, SPAs) and the Habitats Directive (Sites of Community Importance, SCIs, and Special Areas of Conservation, SACs)
DAMS AND RESERVOIRS
Source "Lakes (HydroLAKES data base v 1.0)" :HydroLAKES Version 1.0.
HydroLAKE is part of the WWF HYDROSHED project. HydroLAKES is a database aiming to provide the shoreline polygons of all global lakes with a surface area of at least 10 ha. Additional attributes for each of the 1.4 million lakes include estimates of the shoreline length, average depth, water volume and residence time. All lakes are co-registered to the global river network of the HydroSHEDS database via their lake pour points.
In this website, we display various data. Reference may be found in the HydroLAKE documentation : HydroLAKE documentation
LAKES and RESERVOIRS (WWF database)
Source "Lakes and Reservoirs" : WWF: Global Lakes and Wetlands Database. Lehner, B. and Döll, P. (2004): Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4: 1-22.
DAMS (GRanDv1 data base)
Source Dams Data Base - GRanD :
GRanD v1.1 : Lehner, B., C. Reidy Liermann, C. Revenga, C. Vorosmarty, B. Fekete, P. Crouzet, P. Doll, M. Endejan, K. Frenken, J. Magome, C. Nilsson, J.C. Robertson, R. Rodel, N. Sindorf, and D. Wisser. 2011. Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (GRanDv1): Dams, Revision 01. Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). SEDAC
GRanD v1.3 ( Global Reservoir and Dam Database (GRanD) )augments v1.1 with an additional 458 reservoirs and associated dams to bring the total number of records to 7320. Most of the added reservoirs were constructed between 2000 and 2016; global reservoir storage is increased by 666.5 km3. Updates have also been made to attribute data originally developed for GRanD v1.1; this includes a new column to indicate whether and when a dam has been removed. Source : Lehner, B., C. Reidy Liermann, C. Revenga, C. Vörösmarty, B. Fekete, P. Crouzet, P. Döll, M. Endejan, K. Frenken, J. Magome, C. Nilsson, J.C. Robertson, R. Rodel, N. Sindorf, and D. Wisser. 2011. High-resolution mapping of the world’s reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9 (9): 494-502.
GlObal geOreferenced Database of Dams - GOODD. This global dataset of more than 38,000 dams was developed by digitising visible dams using Google Earth’s satellite imagery. It is made available to the user community in raw and unfinished form in the hope that others will contribute to its development, thus contributing to its use and utility. Subscribe to GDW updates to receive news on GOODD. A version has also been published as an open access dataset in Nature Scientific Data. Source : Mulligan, M., L. Saenz-Cruz, A. van Soesbergen, V.T. Smith, and L. Zurita. 2009. Global dams database and geowiki. Version 1 http://geodata.policysupport.org/dams.
Area Equipped for Irrigation (in ha) : The map shows the amount of area equipped for irrigation around the year 2005 in percentage of the total area on a raster with a resolution of 5 minutes. Additional map layers show the percentage of the area equipped for irrigation that was actually used for irrigation and the percentages of the area equipped for irrigation that was irrigated with groundwater, surface water or non-conventional sources of water. An explanation of the different terminology to indicate areas under irrigation is given in this glossary. Please note that information for the additional layers on area actually irrigated or on the water source for irrigation was derived from statistical survey data (e.g. census reports). Therefore all grid cells belonging to the same statistical unit will have the same value. Consequently, the accuracy at pixel level will be very limited, depending on the size of the statistical unit.
Source Stefan Siebert, Verena Henrich, Karen Frenken and Jacob Burke (2013). Global Map of Irrigation Areas version 5. Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, Bonn, Germany / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHY
Population Density : Source Population Data Base: Center for International Earth Science Information Network - CIESIN - Columbia University. 2017. Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Count, Revision 10. Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Accessed 23 Feb 2018. These data were treated afterwards by Rivers Network to fit with river basin limits and formated for web maps purposes. The density ranking is based on the DN values from SEDAC data base.
Urban Areas :Natural Earth Data (Natural Earth Data)Schneider, A., M. A. Friedl, D. K. McIver, and C. E. Woodcock (2003) Mapping urban areas by fusing multiple sources of coarse resolution remotely sensed data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, volume 69, pages 1377-1386.
Source Rainfall :WorldClim Version 2 - Mean average rainfall (mm) -period 1970-2000 resolution 5 minutes (approx 100 km2)
WATER-RELATED-RISKSGassert, F., M. Landis, M. Luck, P. Reig, and T. Shiao. 2014. “Aqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Data.” Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at :Aqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Data
Baseline Water Stress : Baseline water stress measures total annual water withdrawals (municipal, industrial, and agricultural) expressed as a percentage of the total annual available blue water. Higher values indicate more competition among users. Sources: WRI Aqueduct; FAO AQUASTAT; NASA GLDAS-2; Shiklomanov and Rodda; Flörke et al.; Matsutomi et al.
Flood Occurrence : Flood occurrence is the number of floods recorded from 1985 to 2011. Source: Brakenridge, Dartmouth Flood Observatory
Groundwater Stress : Groundwater stress measures the ratio of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge rate; values above one indicate where unsustainable groundwater consumption could affect groundwater availability and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. <br><br>Source: Gleeson, Wada, Bierkens, and van Beek
Upstream Protected Land : Upstream protected land measures the percentage of total water supply that originates from protected ecosystems. Higher ratios indicate higher amounts of runoff originating from upstream areas that are protected under conservation easements. Modified land use can affect the health of freshwater ecosystems and have severe downstream impacts on both water quality and quantity. Sources: WRI Aqueduct; NASA GLDAS-2; IUCN, UNEP